Synovial fluid is a viscous liquid found in the cavities of synovial joints. Several articular diseases are characterised by fluid accumulation in joints, so that arthrocentesis and morphological analysis are essential tools for differentiating a non-inflammatory arthropathy from an inflammatory arthropathy or an infectious disease. Cell count and differentiation are important diagnostic aspects in such patients. This first SEED article about synovial fluid summarises the typical characteristics and recommends procedures for specimen collection and handling.
The term ‘NRBC’ – ‘nucleated red blood cells’ – refers to precursor cells of the red blood cell lineage which still contain a nucleus. In healthy adults and older children, NRBC can only be found in blood-building bone marrow where they mature. Their appearance in peripheral blood points to extramedullary erythropoiesis or disruption of the blood - bone marrow barrier. Both possible scenarios can only be found in the course of a severe disease.
Direct detection of blood doping is relatively time-consuming and cost intensive. Some of the banned substances, such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), can hardly be distinguished from natural, endogenous hormones. This SEED describes how it is nevertheless possible to indirectly detect EPO-like doping with a modern haematology analyser like the XN-Series and reticulocyte parameters. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has played a leading role in the development of the Athlete Biological Passport for monitoring blood parameters such as RET#, RET%, HGB or HCT to ensure fairness among athletes.
Thrombocytopenia is a disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. It can be life threatening and its detection and precise count is extremely important. The immature platelet fraction (IPF parameter) measures young, reticulated platelets in peripheral Blood, revealing if the bone marrow is producing or not.
XbarM is a real-time analyser monitoring available on Sysmex 5-part differential analysers, XN-L Series and XN-Series, which uses patient samples measured during the daily lab routine. Unlike internal quality control with stabilised material, the XbarM offers a long-term and continuous control process over the entire working day. Using the XbarM, the functionality of all connected reagents, e.g. before and after reagent replacement is monitored in an optimal manner as well as the analyser itself, e.g. before and after calibration or sensitivity adjustment. It does not require any extra input from the user because, once activated and set up correctly, it runs automatically in the background. This SEED article describes the different types of monitored parameters, recommended XbarM settings as well as tips for troubleshooting.
A short introduction to the concepts of metrological traceability and measurement uncertainty is given in the article for readers who are not familiar with them. It also includes a short description of the steps needed to evaluate uncertainty. The article further explains how traceability is assured for the Sysmex haematology calibrators and describes how the uncertainty of these calibrators was evaluated.